02.17.18

Middle Ages

There are two main types of sculpture: a round sculpture, which is freely placed in space, and topography, where the image is located on the plane, which forms its backdrop. By the works of the round sculpture normally requiring the circular view, include: a statue (the figure in the growth), group (constituting a single unit, two or more pieces), the statuette (the figure is much smaller than actual size), torso (image of the human torso), bust (bust of a man). Landforms vary depending on its purpose and position in the architectural plane (fascia, front track, canopy, etc.). Height and depth images subdivided into low reliefs – bas-relief, high – high relief, in-depth and kontrrelefy. Content and features a sculpture is divided into monumental-decorative easel and the so-called small-scale sculpture. Although these variety of sculpture developed in close collaboration, each of them has its own peculiarities.

Monumental and decorative sculpture designed for specific architectural and spatial or natural environment. It has a pronounced social character, addressed to the masses of spectators, is housed primarily in public places, streets and city squares, in parks, on the facades and interiors of public buildings. Monumental and decorative sculpture is intended to specify the architectural image, add to the expressiveness of architectural forms with new shades. The ability of monumental and decorative sculptures to solve large ideological and imaginative problem with special fullness revealed in the works, which are called monumental, and are commonly referred city of monuments, memorial buildings. Skulpturs not directly is connected with the architecture, the halls of exhibitions, museums, residential interiors, where it can be viewed up close and in detail, it is a common medium. Thus defines the features of the plastic language of sculpture, its size, favorite genres (portrait, genre, nudes, animal genre). Get all the facts for a more clear viewpoint with novelist.

Skulpturs to a greater extent than the monumental and decorative, are inherent interest in the inner world of man, thin psychology, narrative. Small sculptures include a wide range of products designed primarily for residential interiors, and largely closed with arts and crafts. Go to small sculptures also belong to the coin medals and gems. Purpose and content of works of sculpture determine the nature of its plastic structure, while she, in turn, influences the selection of a sculptural material. Of natural features and processing methods the latter largely depends on technique of sculpture. Soft material (clay, wax, clay, etc.) are used for modeling, with the most commonly used tools are wire rings and stacks. Substances liable to move from liquid to solid (various metals, plaster, concrete, plastic, etc.) are used for casting sculptures with the help of specially prepared forms. To play sculptures in metal, also resorted to electroforming. In the form of unmelted metal for sculptures is processed by forging and stamping. To create a ceramic sculpture used special types of clay, which is usually covered with painted or colored glaze and fired in special kilns. Color in the sculpture found a long time: a well-known painted sculpture of antiquity, the Middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque. Sculptors 19-20 centuries. generally satisfied natural color of the material, resorting to appropriate only to its one-color tint, tone. Schematically, the process of creating sculptural works can be separated into several stages: modeling (plasticine or clay), sketch and sketch from nature, making the frame for the dealer sculpture or a shield for the relief (iron rods, wire, nails, wood), work on a rotating machine or vertically fortified shield over the model in a given size, making a clay model in plaster with the help of 'black' or 'lump' form, casting, metal stamping, followed by; platinirovka or touch-up sculptures.

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