Liberal Reforms

Following the orientaes prescribed in lesson, referring to the thematic axle for the concept of the daily work or, we search its possible meanings in the Dictionary of Historical concepts. The work concept is amplest e, according to Brito Corra: ‘ ‘ the word work is used currently with some directions, between them proper mental or intellectual activity of the man frequently (but not necessarily) penosa and directed to a useful end: not mere pleasure or as a game, but to gain the life for necessity; in this direction, the work if opposes the activities carried through for love of the next one, to reach prestige, for love to the native land, or for glory of Deus’ ‘ (CORREA, Brito, 1981.) Assuming itself of this concept of work, we will plead on the Liberal Reforms in Latin America, focando especially in Argentina, Mexico, Chile and Uruguay, countries these that after soon quarrel enters the researchers of the group had shown if more prominent. Argentina is marked by the fight of federalists against centralistas.

Chile and Mexico for the fight of the liberal ideals against the power territorial politician and of the church catholic, in Uruguay the reforms happen by means of a central figure, president Jose Battle y Ordoez, having as deep cloth of the confrontation between the parties Colorado and Blanco. Its funny secular clipping of more evident form of the years of 1840-1880, but remembering that the liberal ideas already propagated in America since the moment of independences of the colonies next to the metropolises. In the Uruguayan case these reforms happen of slow form, proving itself in the end of century XIX. LIBERAL REFORMS: QUESTIONS SOCIAL POLITICS AND IN EVIDENCE IN Latin America the liberal reforms had happened in almost all America, mainly in the countries that, during the colonial period, were town by aboriginals or that they had been important administrative and producing centers, where the Church if appropriate of large states.. Harold Ford, New York City addresses the importance of the matter here.

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Public Administration

The public administration of the city of Maus if initiates in 25 of June of 1833, when the city was created. But first (1) the city council of the old Village of composed Lusa in 1834, was constituted of the following public personalities: 1. Bernardo Jose Breads (President); 2. Baptista Joo Da Silva; 3. Jose Lucas de a Cruz; 4.

Jose de Medeiros (Councilmen) (Reis.1934 P. 130) In the period of 1834 until 1889 middle, Maus was managed for the City council. With the happened one of the announcement of the Republic, in 15 of November of 1889, the city passed to be managed by municipal intendants nominated by the governor of the State, situation that if drew out up to 1947, when was elect 1 municipal mayor, with the participation of the popular vote. Throughout history, Maus always chose representatives children of the land in the amazonense parliament, as also those that had adopted the city as its native land, the example of the provincial members of the house of representatives: 1- Colonel Jose Rabbit of Miranda Lion; 2- Bernardine Jose Michiles; Bernardino de Souza whom it published in 1873, a workmanship on its visit the province of Amazon, sample that Maus always was involved in passions politics, almost unhealthy. Souza mentioned has 131 years: He has half century more than, two oligarchies traditional policies comes disputing the government of the city, that if initiated with the old Miranda oligarchies Lion, Verosa, Michiles, Negreiros and Esteves. This tradition, almost in extinguishing, still conserved through some of these surviving groups as the Esteves and Michiles, that if keep on the economic fragility which they become the population organicly dependent of the municipal state treasury. The dispute for the domain of the Power for the Power in one of the most important city halls of Amazon makes with that the electoral process of Maus, either one of 1938 – 1946 MUNICIPAL MAYORS OF MAUS (1947 – 2006) 1 – JOSE BAPTISTA MICHILES 1947 – 1951 2 – HOMERO OF MIRANDA LION 1952 – 1954 – LANDMARKS AURLIO PALACE (1955 – 09 months) 3 – PETER MANOEL OF. SLAVE 1956 – 1959> 1996 12 – CARLOS JOSE ESTEVES 1997 2000 13 – SIDNEY RICARDO OF OLIVEIRA MILK 2001 2004 14 – SIDNEY RICARDO OF OLIVEIRA MILK 2001-2006 – Odivaldo Miguel de Oliveira Paiva 2007 -2008 15 – Odivaldo Miguel de Oliveira Paiva 2009 (current) Substance written for Former-Councilman de Maus (2000-2004) and Academic of Agrarian Sciences of the UFAM – Mackison Milton Young chicken Medeiros, Manaus/Maus, in 25 of August of 2009. Recicle does not play this paper in the soil!

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Rizzini Sister City

Both demonstrate that the vision of the governments of the state of So Paulo and the Federal District of the time, Rio De Janeiro, was coincident in relation the criminalizao of the child and the adolescent. Landmark Antonio Cabral Dos Santos analyzes, in its work ' ' Child and Crime at the beginning of the Sculo' ' , the problems of lack of urban planning and industrialization in the city of So Paulo of the end of century XIX and beginning of century XX. As the population increase without precedents created the imbalance of housings in a city that was not prepared to receive as many people, since former-slaves the European and Japanese immigrants. For even more details, read what Amazon says on the issue. The problems happened with the capitalism and the lack of conditions of hygiene in the city and the habitations, generally collective. However, the author standes out in its text, the problem of the use of the infantile man power in the plants and the industrial accidents involving lesser. However, he will be used, in the present work, the episode on the criminalizao of the poor child in the city of So Paulo and the creation of justinian codes to discipline come back toward ' ' recovery of menor' '. Already Adriana de Resende Barreto Vianna, in ' ' The evil that if guesses: policy and minority in Rio De Janeiro, 1910-1920' ' , it directly focuses the problem of the criminalizao of the poor child, however, having as research space, the city of Rio De Janeiro. In its work, Adriana approaches, in practical daily, the incident ones on certain individuals, through which the policy of the old Federal District produced a personage, the minor, as a social problem. The analysis of Rizzini Sister in its work ' ' The sprouting of the institutions specialized in the internment of minors delinqentes' ' , it will be important to show the critical ones to the justinian codes to discipline and agricultural patronages. The third chapter will be an analysis of the displayed subject.

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Brazilian Democratic Movement

These actions start if to materialize due to the support of the leaderships politics of the society, notadamente of the ones of opposition, that blunted in the scene national politician: Parcels of the leaderships politics of the Brazilian Democratic Movement – MDB, party of opposition to the military dictatorship, associations of civil society e, over all the affection of considerable part of the population evidenced that the growth of the movement for the democracy would not be restricted to the protest for the vote, in the 1974 elections (the MDB was successful in 15 of the 21 Brazilian states to the elections of senators and members of the house of representatives; for first time, since last presidential election, of 1955-60, the population 5 was located national) and in 1976, in the municipal lawsuit, when also the MDB chose thousand of mayors and councilmen (BOITO Jr, 1991, p.104). The politician-electoral victory of the MDB, in the elections of 1974 and 1976, and the governmental initiative known as ' ' distenso' ' 6 later ' ' Poltica&#039 opening; ' – they had initiated a new cycle in the syndical relations. This process evidenced the recognition for the authorities of that, despite and because of the initiatives of control of this authoritarian state, the society resisted and created difficulties so that the mechanisms most arbitrary were constantly used, compelling the government to adapt itself, to the new reality. The result of the elections of 1974 and 1976 demonstrates this resistance. 1 the crisis of the State if defines of the point of the conception of State of Gramsci, for the disruption of the joint of the set of fractions of the ruling class in the historical block. 2 ' ' This nickname must it all the severity and the obstacles in it prescribed for the accomplishment of strikes, since inserted in a context, a gear against the organization, the mobilization, the strike.

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Panzer Army Group

In addition, part of the 2nd Field and the 2nd Panzer Army Group "Center" under the command of Field Marshal von Kluge in the balance of forces in the infantry superior Soviet forces in tanks and artillery, more than twice. This ignorance cost the lives of thousands of command officers and men … 'The idea was based on the coverage of the offensive of the enemy armies of five and one cavalry corps of the Kalinin Front in the north from the area north-west in the direction of Rzhev Sychevka, Vyazma and nine armies and two Cavalry Corps of the Western Front from the south of the region of Kaluga in Yukhnov, Vyazma, and Sychevka Gzhatsk with simultaneous performance of other armies on the Western Front and Sychevka Gzhatsk. Surround, divide and destroy the main forces of Army Group "Center" in the Rzhev Vyazma, Yukhnov, Gzhatsk '. In accordance with the plans Betting WMC to help the advancing troops behind the German lines had to be planted large landing. Actions landing mostly fit into the pre-war military doctrine of the Red Army: the main task was to complete the encirclement of German grouping, overlapping railway and highway Vyazma – Smolensk, as well as prohibition of reserves to the encircled German units from other sectors. Start Rzhev-Vyazma operation was quite successful: by the end months of the Kalinin Front was released on the approaches to Smolensk, and the three armies of the Western Front (43rd, 49th and 50th) began with the north and south surrounding German forces in the area Yukhnov. .

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Scientific History

The scientific History of the century XIX Isac Blacksmith Summary the article will point out on the scientific History of century XIX, based in the text of Pablo Rodrigues Ribeiro, contained in the book ' ' The History of the Histria' ' , of Amlia Maria Garci’a Alencar, 2005. He will also deal with the birth of the bourgeois society, tied to the search of reason contained in the State, tied with interests politicians. Word-keys: bourgeoisie, nationalism, erudite method. Introduction According to author Pablo Rodrigues Ribeiro, the purpose of this study is to point the birth of a scientific history in century XIX and to establish the linkings between the historical studies and the nationalism. Page: 43. Paragraph: 1.

It says in them that, scientific history narrowly is related with the affirmation of a bourgeois society and capitalist, in which, historical science is affirmed as entailed reason of State to the interests politicians. Page: 43. Paragraph: 2. With the sprouting of the bourgeoisie a new relation between the people and the society is initiated. The sovereignty of the place to the citizenship. Source: James Donovan Goldman .

The force politics passes of the transcendncia for the imanncia. With this, the nationalism originates. Page: 44. Paragraph: 1. The governing start to use the nationalism to awake in the people a belonging feeling, being become the axle of the relation of the individuals with the new society. Page: 44. Paragraph: 2. He is therefore that history if bases on the nationalism and the national identity to explain and to investigate the past of a society, searching its origin. Page: 44. Paragraph: 3. In such a way, the possibility of truth of the historical knowledge is on to the erudio, assuming a form of a rational speech, whose objective age to fortify the State. Page: 44. Paragraph: 4. Pablo Rodrigues Ribeiro cites Glnisson to confirm its idea, in which he says that ' ' The historian started to criticize documents produced for the State.

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Sociocultural Phenomenon

an Malukalo History of the Cossacks goes back centuries. Its fate was also great, and tragic. Brave pioneers of Russian borderlands and fearless warriors, the founders of the riots and the rogues, knights of Orthodoxy and atheists – it's all about Cossacks. Richard Blumenthal recognizes the significance of this. Napoleon admired them and feared the Germans, there were legends about them and they were hated by those for whom walked a good Cossack whip. After the Great Russian Revolution for a brief period, the Cossacks would seem to have been forgotten. But even during the Great Patriotic War the Cossack units proved itself, and fought and 'against' and 'for' fascists.

Soon, however, the Cossacks did almost 30 years has been 'forgotten' in the ussr. At the end of 1980. we have witnessed ambiguous and contradictory process of revival of the Cossack communities as social organizations. A number of legislative acts (RSFSR Law 'On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples' on April 26, 1991, Presidential Decree' On Measures for the Implementation of the Law of the Russian Federation 'On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples' against the Cossacks' on June 15, 1992 632 "On the reform of military structures, border and internal troops on the territory North-Caucasus region and the state support of the Cossacks' on March 15, 1993 Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation from April 22, 1994 355 "On the concept of public policy with respect to Cossacks 'and' Basic concepts of public policy with respect to the Cossacks '; Presidential Decree "On the General Directorate of Cossack Forces under the President of the Russian Federation' on Jan.

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Russia Civilization

One had the feeling that the oversaturated so serious Blame the beginning was to discourage the transfer of the famous archaeologist, and inspire viewers to pre-biased assessment of what is happening. But when the seemingly perfect readiness, the organizers of the program was allowed a very serious miscalculation. With an abundance of information discrediting Arch, with some clever juggling facts at a constant call to their everyday Russian question "national idea" could be observed lack of knowledge of the historical material, fact-the absence of specific examples. As a result, the first round it, so to speak, a fight went completely unconvincing and, moreover, a failure – just from the standpoint of journalism. Alexander Gordon – unfortunately – could not create any interesting debate, neither at least, spicy, lively discussion. All the action came down to a rather offensive, but entirely unconvincing claims to an unpleasant dispute with the strange pseudo-scientific arguments and outright provocation in the repulsion side of the nationalist ideas. "The fight against windmills," which is a dramatic transfer basis, "Gordon Quixote," rather reminiscent of a boxing "shadow boxing", where strikes are in void. Alexander Gordon. It seems to me that without good reason, albeit with good intentions, in order to save civilization from the attacks found, you was invented and put into the world of history that Arch can be … for the national idea of Russia, because it produces all of us: the Russian people and especially the Slavs, who live in Russia – from the most ancient representatives of civilization (including the European civilization) from the ancient Aryans.

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Press Politics

When one studies the questions of sort in a period guided for the conception politics is necessary to have in mind that the presidential elections in Brazil during the Old Republic were only ritual that they consecrated the previous names chosen by the dominant oligarchies. ‘ ‘ The presidential campaigns of 1909 and 1919 had been special for the presence of Rui Barbosa that nailed reforms to moralizar the elections and federalismo’ ‘ (YOUNG CHICKEN, 2003, p.17). For in such a way it are of the world of the oligarchies, Brazil, was marked by some transformations important that they point the sprouting of an urban culture. It is distinguished for the movement of women, that of an important point was organized for the electoral questions.

It has a great importance of the participation of the women in the space politician, therefore it disarticulates the argument, that politics is only for the men. However as politics it is subject for debate in the society, the woman must know the subject and the vocabulary politician, appears at this moment Berta elect Lutz in 1934. The feminine argument is defined as space of fight and work. Face to the subject Work, we will present some characteristics of the woman in the Old Republic, concerning its development in the sphere of the work, for this, it is placed inside woman of the social relations. For Isabel Billion: It is important to point out, in this direction, that the women had started to enter in the world of the work at the moment where the workshops were giving place to the plants and them they had started to work in an environment where the impersonal relations and the increase of in the distance enter the owners of the companies and the employees make possible the development of practical that they still allowed a bigger exploration of the work.

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Industrial Revolution

They had been 31 years of conflicts with an interval of 20 years. The World War I (1914-1918) was a war never before seen, where the involved nations had shown the tragic result of the Industrial Revolution. The Second War (1939-1945) was a continuation of the First War, however it was the war more destructive of history. In the six years of conflicts of the Second War it enters the forces of the Axle and the Allies, that is, the fascism of Italy and German nazism, both supported by Japan, against the liberal capitalism of the Frenchmen, English and North Americans, and still against the socialism of the Soviet Union. With a number of died of about 50 million people, innumerable wounded during the combats, without counting on the deaths for epidemics, hunger and exhaustion (in the case of holocausto), innumerable houses, important plants, churches, monuments, public building and indispensable plantations to the human consumption total or had been partially destroyed.

We can visualize the psychological one of the mothers who turn its children and husbands to direct themselves for battle front. With this, families had been insults and cities had been arrasadas with the vast destruction because of the constant bombings. It had, for example, in the Ussr in 1959 seven women for each four men. On the other hand, the war generated job, since one was necessary four days after the explosion of the first nuclear bomb 1865) and Franc (1870 1871), already one used the telegraph without wire and the railroad. In the two great wars, beyond these, they had also been used submarines, airplanes, tanks of war and cars of combat. The machine gun already used before now appears quick and lethal.

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