Scientific History

The scientific History of the century XIX Isac Blacksmith Summary the article will point out on the scientific History of century XIX, based in the text of Pablo Rodrigues Ribeiro, contained in the book ' ' The History of the Histria' ' , of Amlia Maria Garci’a Alencar, 2005. He will also deal with the birth of the bourgeois society, tied to the search of reason contained in the State, tied with interests politicians. Word-keys: bourgeoisie, nationalism, erudite method. Introduction According to author Pablo Rodrigues Ribeiro, the purpose of this study is to point the birth of a scientific history in century XIX and to establish the linkings between the historical studies and the nationalism. Page: 43. Paragraph: 1.

It says in them that, scientific history narrowly is related with the affirmation of a bourgeois society and capitalist, in which, historical science is affirmed as entailed reason of State to the interests politicians. Page: 43. Paragraph: 2. With the sprouting of the bourgeoisie a new relation between the people and the society is initiated. The sovereignty of the place to the citizenship. Source: James Donovan Goldman .

The force politics passes of the transcendncia for the imanncia. With this, the nationalism originates. Page: 44. Paragraph: 1. The governing start to use the nationalism to awake in the people a belonging feeling, being become the axle of the relation of the individuals with the new society. Page: 44. Paragraph: 2. He is therefore that history if bases on the nationalism and the national identity to explain and to investigate the past of a society, searching its origin. Page: 44. Paragraph: 3. In such a way, the possibility of truth of the historical knowledge is on to the erudio, assuming a form of a rational speech, whose objective age to fortify the State. Page: 44. Paragraph: 4. Pablo Rodrigues Ribeiro cites Glnisson to confirm its idea, in which he says that ' ' The historian started to criticize documents produced for the State.

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Sociocultural Phenomenon

an Malukalo History of the Cossacks goes back centuries. Its fate was also great, and tragic. Brave pioneers of Russian borderlands and fearless warriors, the founders of the riots and the rogues, knights of Orthodoxy and atheists – it's all about Cossacks. Richard Blumenthal recognizes the significance of this. Napoleon admired them and feared the Germans, there were legends about them and they were hated by those for whom walked a good Cossack whip. After the Great Russian Revolution for a brief period, the Cossacks would seem to have been forgotten. But even during the Great Patriotic War the Cossack units proved itself, and fought and 'against' and 'for' fascists.

Soon, however, the Cossacks did almost 30 years has been 'forgotten' in the ussr. At the end of 1980. we have witnessed ambiguous and contradictory process of revival of the Cossack communities as social organizations. A number of legislative acts (RSFSR Law 'On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples' on April 26, 1991, Presidential Decree' On Measures for the Implementation of the Law of the Russian Federation 'On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples' against the Cossacks' on June 15, 1992 632 "On the reform of military structures, border and internal troops on the territory North-Caucasus region and the state support of the Cossacks' on March 15, 1993 Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation from April 22, 1994 355 "On the concept of public policy with respect to Cossacks 'and' Basic concepts of public policy with respect to the Cossacks '; Presidential Decree "On the General Directorate of Cossack Forces under the President of the Russian Federation' on Jan.

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Russia Civilization

One had the feeling that the oversaturated so serious Blame the beginning was to discourage the transfer of the famous archaeologist, and inspire viewers to pre-biased assessment of what is happening. But when the seemingly perfect readiness, the organizers of the program was allowed a very serious miscalculation. With an abundance of information discrediting Arch, with some clever juggling facts at a constant call to their everyday Russian question "national idea" could be observed lack of knowledge of the historical material, fact-the absence of specific examples. As a result, the first round it, so to speak, a fight went completely unconvincing and, moreover, a failure – just from the standpoint of journalism. Alexander Gordon – unfortunately – could not create any interesting debate, neither at least, spicy, lively discussion. All the action came down to a rather offensive, but entirely unconvincing claims to an unpleasant dispute with the strange pseudo-scientific arguments and outright provocation in the repulsion side of the nationalist ideas. "The fight against windmills," which is a dramatic transfer basis, "Gordon Quixote," rather reminiscent of a boxing "shadow boxing", where strikes are in void. Alexander Gordon. It seems to me that without good reason, albeit with good intentions, in order to save civilization from the attacks found, you was invented and put into the world of history that Arch can be … for the national idea of Russia, because it produces all of us: the Russian people and especially the Slavs, who live in Russia – from the most ancient representatives of civilization (including the European civilization) from the ancient Aryans.

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Press Politics

When one studies the questions of sort in a period guided for the conception politics is necessary to have in mind that the presidential elections in Brazil during the Old Republic were only ritual that they consecrated the previous names chosen by the dominant oligarchies. ‘ ‘ The presidential campaigns of 1909 and 1919 had been special for the presence of Rui Barbosa that nailed reforms to moralizar the elections and federalismo’ ‘ (YOUNG CHICKEN, 2003, p.17). For in such a way it are of the world of the oligarchies, Brazil, was marked by some transformations important that they point the sprouting of an urban culture. It is distinguished for the movement of women, that of an important point was organized for the electoral questions.

It has a great importance of the participation of the women in the space politician, therefore it disarticulates the argument, that politics is only for the men. However as politics it is subject for debate in the society, the woman must know the subject and the vocabulary politician, appears at this moment Berta elect Lutz in 1934. The feminine argument is defined as space of fight and work. Face to the subject Work, we will present some characteristics of the woman in the Old Republic, concerning its development in the sphere of the work, for this, it is placed inside woman of the social relations. For Isabel Billion: It is important to point out, in this direction, that the women had started to enter in the world of the work at the moment where the workshops were giving place to the plants and them they had started to work in an environment where the impersonal relations and the increase of in the distance enter the owners of the companies and the employees make possible the development of practical that they still allowed a bigger exploration of the work.

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Industrial Revolution

They had been 31 years of conflicts with an interval of 20 years. The World War I (1914-1918) was a war never before seen, where the involved nations had shown the tragic result of the Industrial Revolution. The Second War (1939-1945) was a continuation of the First War, however it was the war more destructive of history. In the six years of conflicts of the Second War it enters the forces of the Axle and the Allies, that is, the fascism of Italy and German nazism, both supported by Japan, against the liberal capitalism of the Frenchmen, English and North Americans, and still against the socialism of the Soviet Union. With a number of died of about 50 million people, innumerable wounded during the combats, without counting on the deaths for epidemics, hunger and exhaustion (in the case of holocausto), innumerable houses, important plants, churches, monuments, public building and indispensable plantations to the human consumption total or had been partially destroyed.

We can visualize the psychological one of the mothers who turn its children and husbands to direct themselves for battle front. With this, families had been insults and cities had been arrasadas with the vast destruction because of the constant bombings. It had, for example, in the Ussr in 1959 seven women for each four men. On the other hand, the war generated job, since one was necessary four days after the explosion of the first nuclear bomb 1865) and Franc (1870 1871), already one used the telegraph without wire and the railroad. In the two great wars, beyond these, they had also been used submarines, airplanes, tanks of war and cars of combat. The machine gun already used before now appears quick and lethal.

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Magos Luther Burbank passed great part of its life despertando in the others, is read competing, the green however not emerald feeling of the envy. Its feats, between ends of century XIX and start of the XX had given origin to a new transitivo verb in the English language: you burbank, registered for the Webster as to modify and to perfect. It is what it happens with who act freely? they bother those confusions in the proper teias. Its bigrafos had always emphasized that Burbank ' ' it was and he remains one enigma' '. The main book of the Self-Realization Fellowship is dedicated to its memory. Three years after publishing entrancing ' ' The origin of espcies' ' , Charles Robert Darwin launched, in 1862, ' ' The fecundao of orqudeas' ' , considered until today as one of the most complete studies on an only species. What it jumped to the eyes of the researcher was the way for which the insects took care of of the fecundao of these flowers.

Darwin passed 12 years searching the subject, weaveeed notebooks and notebooks on ' ' fertilizao cruzada' ' ' ' vigor hbrido' ' , for, at last, directing itself for the other plan without distrusting, at least with much precision, that something more than the mere one perhaps was in game in the crossing of the species. This something could be submitted the will of the man. In this point Burbank enters. In 1901, during the Floral Congress of San Francisco, Luther the botanical brotherhood of the following form would evaluate: ' ' The main work of the botanical ones of long ago was the study and the private classification of vegetal mmias, droughts and of soul. They had thought invariant who its classified species was more fixed and that everything what we can now imagine, either in the sky or the land.

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Never More

In this period the government divulged slogans of the type: ‘ ‘ this is a country that goes for frente’ ‘. When the economic miracle entered in crisis, Mdice adopted measured as the wage wage freeze that affected the diligent classroom that met disabled to make manifestations due the repression. The consequncia of this was the ascent of the inflation and the frightful increase of the external debt. With everything, we can observe that it was very well boarded the question of the repression and the punishments, placing itself very well the types of tortures and the fear of that the population felt. Leaving to approach facts important as the economic miracle.

Certain that the intention was to count the history of Zuzu, but for this it would be necessary to approach characteristic peculiar of that period. An imperfection that we can notice meets in the scene where Lamara assaults a bank, the reason was not explicit for which these groups politicians committed these delicts. What it demands of the spectator previous conhecimeto on the dictatorship. Another well serious imperfection is placed in the parts where ‘ ‘ it tries-se’ ‘ to approach the importance of the media, therefore inacreditalvemente ‘ ‘ esqueceram’ ‘ to detach the paper of the Net Globe of Television as allied officer of the military dictatorship. That during the dictatorship it transmitted every day, for the Brazilian families, propagandas that showed Brazil in peace times. In elapsing of the years of lead, great part of the artists had elaborated workmanships that criticized the dictatorship and stimulated the population to fight against this barbarity. The production left to detach the paper of many artists. One has filmed that interesting at least must be asistido by history students, either the average, basic level or graduation.

For that if they still interest for the entedimento of a part of the military dictatorship and, or mainly, for that they are admiring of Zuzu Angel.

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Kalevi Holsti

In the internal plan, the sustainable economic development, based in the insertion of the micron-economic actors in international trade, in the distribution of wealth, the respect to the human rights and in the protection to the environment, enters into an alliance it the questions of public security guard (the call ' ' violncia' '), of job, health and education, to only cite the main abutments, and at the same time of challenge, the structure internal politics. The internal public politics were apiam in a legal structure, whose joint it forms a system of prevention, administration and coercion. The capacity and effectiveness of the Government in managing all these questions and demands determine the internal force of the State, or in the words of Kalevi Holsti, if a State is strong or weak a State of promotion of the peace must be a strong State, not necessarily a powerful State, or a power. The alteration of the nature of the great majority of the armed conflicts? of interestatais conflicts for intra-state conflicts – considered by the Advice of Security as threats or effective disruption of the peace and of security guard international, displays the weakness of the structure politics and legal intern of some States, as it was the case of the Bsnia-Herzegovina (1993), Ruanda (1994), Mountain range Lioness (1997) and Kosovo (1999), to only cite some more recent examples faced by the Advice. In another source, of the international projection of the internal demands, the capacity of the State in obtaining and defending external objective, either through the dissuasion or of the coercion, traditionally is measured in terms of amount of ' ' poder' ' (to power), a concept that historically is associated with the phenomenon of the war, to the military power. Thus, for this study, ' ' poder' ' of a State it will be measured by the capacity of accomplishment and external defense of its objectives, not only in its military source.

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Brazilian Industrialization

The socialism in turn saw the movement of fight of the classroom as the engine of history establishing the Brazilian socialist party (PSB) in the year of 1902 with the marxist program. In formation of the laboring classroom two structural factors can be considered: economic and the ethnic composition, the economic factors are on Brazilian Industrialization .a accumulation of capital proceeding from the coffee and foreign immigration forming the hand? of workmanship that came to work in the cafeicultura, the ethnic composition weighed due the great plurality of existing etnias in pas.o Rio De Janeiro was a Portuguese city, So Paulo if its main predominant element formed as the Italian being. The diversity took the importation of ideologies, the cultural differences was great existed the ethnic rivalries, but the classroom supplanted the etnia due the classroom conscience that if it formed. The working-class movement started in century XIX, and had ascension between 1905 -1908, when the first wave of strikes happened, mainly in So Paulo they.em 1906 was carried through the first Laboring congress that decided to create the Brazilian Laboring confederation position defended for the anarco-syndicalist (they believed to be the union the natural organization of the masses), that it prevailed on the position of the socialist one that they wanted to establish a political party. The working-class movement in the old republic between 1909-1912 was of depressions lived mainly for the oscillations of the economy, between 1912-1917 was a period of great strikes mainly of 1917 in So Paulo. In Rio De Janeiro in 1917 the FORJ (Laboring Federacy of Rio De Janeiro) was pledged in the campaign against the life high prices and from February of 1917 the numbers of assemblies for a joint of a great syndical organization had grown. In 1918 the UGT was created (National Union of the Workers) that substitua the FORJ, that was closed for the policy.

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Historical Context

Historical context of the Manifest Workmanship of the Communist Party For Galdina Maria Toledo the workmanship who from now we will start to display is about the Manifesto of the Communist Party written by Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-895). The present Workmanship was written between ends of 1847 and beginning of 1848. Its first publication if gave in 21 of February of 1848. This workmanship was written as program of Liga of the Communists. This movement originated from a species of natural evolution of Liga of the Right ones, and this, in turn, was closely on to the trajectory of the proper modern industry and to the first attempts of organization of the European laboring classroom, especially of the German. The text, presented for Marx and Engels, was assumed in the complete one for Liga of the Communists, during as the congress of the entity, carried through in the 1847 end, in the city of London.

The Manifest Workmanship of the Communist Party, can more than be considered a pamphlet politician, written a century, was during good part of century XX a specter to go up to around the humanity, therefore this small book led, with the form of thought in contained it, to the separation politics of that if they find favorable to the marxist ideas and those fight that it. Throughout the formations of working parties it can be observed that these had used the text of the Manifesto of the Communist Party as a species of catecismo for the formation of its militant ones. However, the nickname of Communist Party passed only to be assumed from the Russian Revolution, with victory of the Bolcheviques, majoritria section of the Laboring Party social Democrat of the Russia that, with Lnin led the 1917 revolution, that after the falling of trees of the Czar Nicholas II and of the provisory Government, it restored the socialist regimen in Russia, and later formed the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.

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